Diabetes is a syndrome characterised by an impairment in insulin secretion and or insulin action. This results in a chronically elevated blood glucose concentration and is accompanied by other manifestations. There are two types of diabetes classified as Type I (insulin-dependent / juvenile onset diabetes mellitus) and Type II (non-insulin diabetes mellitus).
Type I Diabetes is characterised by an early onset, most commonly before 30 years of age, but can develop at any age. Most cases have an auto-immune link, but environmental factors interact with underlying genetic predispositions or susceptibility, which leads to the destruction of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, which secrete insulin and glucagon. This results in insulin deficiency, abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood, and other metabolic disturbances.
Type II Diabetes, on the other hand, may develop due to insulin resistance, followed by increased secretion of insulin to overcome the resistance. This can lead to exhaustion of the pancreas’ secretory capacity and result in relative insulin deficiency. The second proposed sequence of events is that insulin deficiency begins the process.
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Source: Tibb Health Sciences (Pty) Ltd Representative Training Manual Dr. Grant Nijland (M.Tech.Hom) Copyright© 2015